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Jokowi, Propaganda Rusia dan Rand Corporation

-Opini-1,479 views

Dr. Syahganda Nainggolan

Sabang Merauke Circle

Beberapa hari yang lalu Jokowi menyatakan bahwa kubu lawannya atau Prabowo telah menggunakan “Propaganda Rusia” atau “Firehose of Falsehood” dalam (kampanye) perpolitikan kita. Dihadapan para alumni ITS dan Jatim yang memberi gelar Jokowi “Cak Jancuk”, dia meminta agar propaganda Rusia ini dilawan, karena tidak beradab.

Penggunaan istilah Propaganda Rusia ini menjadi masalah besar sebab dalam kapasitas apa Jokowi menyatakan hal tersebut? apakah sebagai Presiden Republik Indonesia atau sebatas calon presiden (Capres)? Sebab, konsekwensinya akan berbeda besar. Sedangkan kapan Jokowi bertukar peran sebagai Presiden versus dia sebagai calon presiden hanya tuhan saja yang tahu.

Kedutaan Besar Rusia langsung merespon pernyataan Jokowi tersebut dengan menyatakan bahwa istilah Propaganda Rusia itu sebuah istilah yang tidak dapat dipertanggung jawabkan. Meskipun Jokowi dan timnya sudah mengklarifikasi penggunaan istilah itu hanya sebagai diksi atau pilihan istilah saja, namun soal ini tidak sederhana. Sebab, istilah ini dikeluarkan oleh lembaga kajian (think tank) terbesar Amerika, yang sarat dengan politik Amerika dan dunia, yakni Rand Corporation.

Rand Corp. dalam “The Russian ‘Firehose of Falsehood’ Propaganda Model’,
Why It Might Work and Options to Counter It”, expert insights oleh
Christopher Paul dan Miriam Matthews, 2016, menggambarkan Propaganda Rusia ini adalah sebuah jenis propaganda yang dikembangkan dari propaganda eks komunis Soviet dengan 4 perbedaan, yakni
1) High-volume and multichannel
2) Rapid, continuous, and repetitive
3) Lacks commitment to objective reality
4) Lacks commitment to consistency.

Dalam propaganda ini, produksi disinformasi, atau informasi sesat, diciptakan dan disebarkan dalam jumlah dan frekwensi yang tinggi, via berbagai saluran media (medsos), secara cepat dan terus menerus serta berulang2.

“Pencucian otak” masyarakat untuk menerima suatu kesadaran yang bukan objektif dimulai dengan menciptakan informasi atau berita, lalu diciptakan fakta2 pendukungnya sehingga berita itu mulai diyakini kebenarannya. Berita dan fakta ini harus disiarkan via beberapa sumber berita sehingga penerima berita lebih yakin lagi. Apabila terjadi penyangkalan atas informasi ini, maka dilakukan lagi pengulangan2 sehingga ada “familiarity” untuk selanjutnya menjadi “acceptance”.

Rand Corp meminta agar Propaganda Rusia ini dilawan dan menguraikan cara caranya.

Menurut Rand pula, pemerintah Rusia sedikitnya mengeluarkan uang sebanyak $ 300 juta (sekitar Rp. 4 , 2 Triliun) kepada kantor berita Rusia, RT dan Sputnik dalam menjalankan propaganda ini.

Kembali dengan Jokowi, pertanyaan kita adalah:

Pertama,  apakah Jokowi mengeluarkan pernyataan tersebut sebagai Presiden RI?

Kedua, apakah Jokowi merujuk Rand Corporation dalam agenda politiknya?

Ketiga, apakah benar lawan politik Jokowi mampu menjalankan agenda Propaganda Rusia ini?

Pertanyaan pertama ini menyangkut hubungan antara negara kita dengan Rusia. Apabila beliau sebagai Presiden Republik Indonesia meyakini istilah Propaganda Rusia dan Propaganda Rusia ini merujuk pada campur tangan Rusia dalam politik negara lain yang berdaulat, maka jawaban resmi Duta Besar Rusia via tweeter bahwa Rusia tidak pernah mencampuri politik dalam negeri negara lain dapat dianggap sebagai kekecewaan Rusia pada penggunaan istilah itu oleh seorang Presiden.

Pernyataan Jokowi soal Propaganda Rusia ini sendiri, dapat juga nantinya mewarnai hubungan kita dengan Amerika. Sebab, Propaganda Rusia ini dikaitkan adanya campur tangan Rusia dalam memenangkan Trump pada 2016 lalu. Anti Trump menyebutnya sebagai “foreign attack on US democracy”, dan mereka menuntut adanya investigasi serta perlawanan terhadap Propaganda Rusia. Investigasi itu diejek Trump sebagai “witch hunt” (perburuan penyihir). Gardiner Harris dalam tulisannya “State Dept. Was Granted $120 Million to Fight Russian Meddling. It Has Spent $0.”, nytimes.com,
4/3/2018 mengulas keengganan pemerintah Trump melakukan counter atas Propaganda Rusia itu.

Pertanyaan kedua kita menyangkut rujukan Jokowi pada opini yang dibahas Rand Corp.

RAND (dari singkatan Research and Development) adalah lembaga pemikir/an yang berdiri pada tahun 1948, di Santa Monika, USA, untuk awalnya membantu pemerintah Amerika menghadapi Uni Soviet. Misi RAND menurut Alex Abella dalam “The Soldiers of reason”, adalah untuk menciptakan satu dunia satu pemerintahan yang dipimpin Amerika. RAND mempunyai andil besar dalam membangun “Military industrial complex”, dominasi Amerika di Timur Tengah, perang nuklir, perang Amerika dalam isu anti Jihad dan terorisme, anti Rusia dan anti China, dlsb.

RAND dalam katagori politik Amerika selama ini dianggap “bipartisan”, tidak memihak antara Demokrat vs. Republik. Namun, menurut Danielle Kurtzleben, dalam artikelnya “Think Tank Employees Tend to Support Democrats”, 3/3/2011, U.S.News, mayoritas pemikir di RAND memihak Partai Demokrat.

Pernyataan Jokowi sendiri tentang Propaganda Rusia mirip sekali dengan apa yang ditulis RAND Corp tentang pengertian dan langkah2 yang harus diambil. Sehingga ada kemungkinan Jokowi mempunyai persinggungan politik dengan RAND Corp. tersebut.

Terkait politik internasional, posisi Jokowi ini, misalnya menurut Teguh Santoso, pengamat Korea Utara dan pemred rmol.co, merupakan sebab kenapa petemuan Trump dan Kim Jong Un dua kali dalam setahun ini (di Singapore dan 25-26 Feb 2019 nanti di Vietnam) ada di ASEAN, tapi tidak di Indonesia, meski kita sebagai “bos” Asean.

Ketiga adalah mungkinkah tuduhan Propaganda Rusia dilakukan Prabowo? sambil khususnya merujuk “kasus bohong Ratna Sarumpaet”?

Jika kita melihat definisi Propaganda Rusia yang dibahas RAND bahwa membutuhkan uang besar, punya media besar yang banyak, punya kontrol atas media sosial, punya kemampuan menggunakan IT lainnya, seperti menggunakan robot dan troll di Medsos, tentu Prabowo jauh dari kemungkinan itu.

Sebaliknya, semua kemampuan propaganda dengan uang banyak dan kontrol media dan media sosial, penguasalah yang mampu. Selain itu, investigasi The Guardian “I felt disgusted’: inside Indonesia’s fake Twitter account factories”, 22 Jul 2018, menunjukkan bahwa produksi “Fakenews” dan Hoax dilakukan konsultan media kobu Jokowi. Terakhir Facebook sendiri membongkar Abu Janda adalah seorang Seracen. (Seracen dalam isu Hoax dianggap yang bertanggung jawab selama ini).

Merujuk pada Ratna Sarumpaet, timses Prabowo, yang selalu di “repetitive” (diulang2) Jokowi setiap kesempatan menuduh kubu Prabowo, tentunya mungkin saja diproduksi kubu Prabowo. Tapi, Ratna sudah mengakui bahwa dia sendiri membohongi Prabowo dan lalu meminta maaf. Motif Ratna sendiri merugikan Prabowo dan kebenarannya hanya akan diketahui di pengadilan: benarkan Kebohongan Ratna atas order (timses) Prabowo?

Tanpa bukti pengadilan, belum ada bukti kuat Prabowo dan pendukungnya memproduksi berita palsu (Fakenews atau Hoax). Sedangkan pada statement 2 Prabowo lainnya, misalnya, seperti kebocoran anggaran, sudah dibenarkan Wakil Presiden benar adanya, meskipun berbeda besaran Jumlah. Banyak statemen2 Prabowo dan semuanya mempunyai bukti bukan Hoax atau Fakenews.

Penutup

Politik beradab bukanlah tanggung jawab utama kaum oposisi. Melainkan tanggung jawab negara, dalam hal ini pemerintah. Untuk itu Jokowi perlu memperjelas posisi dirinya pada setiap tampil di masyarakat apakah sebagai Capres atau sebagai Presiden. Hal ini penting untuk mengevaluasi pernyataannya sebagai propaganda untuk elektabilitas atau pemerintah yang bertanggung jawab pada semua rakyat, tanpa kecuali.

Jika itupun tidak bisa dijelaskan pada rakyat, misalnya: apakah dia sedang mengggunakan uang negara untuk pergi ke Garut baru2 ini mencukur rambut dan beli sabun cuci piring? Atau sebagian uang negara mix dengan uang timses, tanpa rakyat tahu, apalagi minta soal isu pemilu beradab, bagaimana rakyat tahu?

Besarnya musibah bagi bangsa Amerika akibat keterbelahan mereka antara kamu Demokrat vs Republik, juga kita alami saat ini antara pro Jokowi vs. Pro Prabowo. Tetap sebagai sebuah bangsa, yang pendidikan rakyat masih rendah, kita berharap pemimpin bangsa lebih baik mengutamakan politik beradab, sesuai azas Musyawarah Mufakat. (Red).

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