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Infrastruktur Sangkuriang, Bikin Jokowi Meriang

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PRESIDEN BANK  Dunia Jim Yong Kim membuat pengumuman mengagetkan. Per 1 Februari dia mengundurkan diri setelah tujuh tahun di posnya.

Sebelum mengundurkan diri, Kim rupanya sudah “menyiapkan” kado khusus untuk Presiden Jokowi. Bank Dunia menyebut proyek infrastruktur di Indonesia berkualitas rendah, tidak memiliki kesiapan, dan tak terencana secara matang. Bahasa gampangnya, asal jadi.

Sebuah penilaian yang sangat keras, terbuka dan blak-blakan yang tak lazim disampaikan sebuah lembaga dunia, terhadap suatu negara yang berdaulat seperti Indonesia.

Diksi yang dipilih Bank Dunia ini menunjukkan level infrastruktur kita susah untuk digambarkan. Barangkali kata yang paling pas adalah sudah “kebangetan.”

Penilaian tersebut muncul dalam laporan edisi Juni 2018 berjudul Indonesia Infrastructure Financing Sector Assesment Program (InfraSAP). “Reputasi proyek di Indonesia berkualitas rendah dan tidak direncanakan dengan baik.”

Laporan Bank Dunia ini jelas merupakan pukulan telak bagi Jokowi. Infrastruktur adalah program primadona yang menjadi jualan utama pada kampanye Pilpres 2019. Berdasarkan sejumlah survei –selain sederhana, dan blusukan yang mulai meredup– citra yang kuat melekat pada Jokowi adalah “keberhasilan” pembangunan infrastruktur.

 

Infrastruktur Sangkuriang – ilustrasi afghan

Pentingnya infrastruktur ini membuat Jokowi menggeber habis program tersebut. Dia menargetkan sejumlah proyek infrastruktur penting harus sudah selesai sebelum bulan April 2019, saat pilpres akan dilaksanakan.

Saat pertemuan tahunan Bank Indonesia 2018 di JCC, Senayan, Jakarta, (27/11/2018), secara terbuka Jokowi mengakui hal itu. Dia minta Jalan Tol Bakauheni ke Palembang bisa selesai sebelum April 2019. Tidak boleh bulan Mei atau Juni seperti rencana semula.

Selain untuk memperlancar arus lebaran di Sumatera, Jokowi mengaku selesainya jalan tol itu sebagai jualan kampanye. “Udah kita blak-blakan saja,” ujar Jokowi disambut tawa hadirin.

Sumatera bagaimanapun menjadi salah satu front pertempuran yang harus dimenangkan Jokowi, bila ingin melenggang kembali sebagai presiden. Berdasarkan hasil sejumlah survei, suara Jokowi di seluruh Sumatera anjlok. Dari total jumlah DPT 2019 sebesar 192 juta pemilih, Sumatera menyumbang suara 21%.

Munculnya laporan itu di sejumlah media, semula dibantah oleh Bank Dunia. “Kami ingin memberikan klarifikasi bahwa laporan ini selesai ditulis pada tahun 2014 sebelum Presiden Jokowi dilantik,” ujar Senior Communications Bank Dunia Lestari Boediono seperti dikutip CNN.

Belakangan Bank Dunia akhirnya mengakui. Laporan setebal 344 halaman berbahasa Inggris ini berisi pandangan Bank Dunia terhadap proses perencanaan, pembiayaan, maupun pembangunan infrastruktruktur pada era Pemerintahan Presiden Jokowi. Hanya saja mereka berkilah, laporan tersebut dalam proses finalisasi. Anehnya kok sudah dipublikasikan?

Dalam membuat laporan, Bank Duniabekerjasama dengan sejumlah kementrian dan lembaga pemerintah di Indonesia. Jadi laporan ini cukup kredibel. Bukan asal jadi, apalagi hoax. Reputasi lembaga ini jadi taruhannya.

Kabarnya pada saat pertemuan tahunan IMF dan Bank Dunia di Bali (8-14 Oktober 2018) laporan ini sudah dipresentasikan di depan lima orang menteri. Tak ada protes dari mereka. Mereka seolah sudah mahfum, tahu sama tahu, begitulah adanya. Tak mengherankan bila Menkeu Sri Mulyani menilai laporan itu sebagai hal wajar. “Jadi baik-baik saja. Sebagai masukan, saya kira masih wajar.”

Pengakuan Sri Mulyani menunjukkan bahwa laporan dan evaluasi Bank Dunia itu sahih dan datanya akurat. Ada persoalan serius pada program infrastruktur Jokowi. Dengan perencanaan yang asal-asalan, proyek ini bisa menjadi bom waktu. Inilah hasil manajemen “pokoknya,” ala Jokowi.

Sebabkan puluhan ribu kontraktor gulung tikar

Selain tidak terencana dengan baik, proyek infrastruktur Jokowi dilaksanakan sepenuhnya oleh BUMN. Swasta tak diberi celah sedikitpun. Caranya BUMN diberi penugasan khusus. Mereka diberi suntikan modal yang sangat besar.

Pada Tahun 2015 pemerintah menyuntikkan modal sebesar Rp 41,4 triliun untuk 36 BUMN. Sementara pada Tahun 2017 jumlahnya ditingkatkan menjadi Rp 53,98 triliun, 83% di antaranya untuk pembangunan infrastruktur.

BUMN tersebut juga diberi kemudahan mendapatkan akses pinjaman dari sejumlah perbankan. Bank Dunia mencatat utang tujuh BUMN yang ditugasi membangun infrastruktur mencapai Rp 200 triliun (2017).

Menggelembungnya utang ini tidak hanya membahayakan BUMN, tetapi juga bagi bank dan negara sebagai penjamin. Utang infrastruktur mempunyai tenor jangka panjang. Jika proyeknya amburadul, pengembalian pinjaman juga tidak terjamin. Bila menggunakan pendanaan bank asing, aset sejumlah BUMN terancam jatuh ke tangan asing.

Kasus ini telah terjadi di sejumlah negara yang membangun infrastruktur dengan berutang ke Cina. Angola, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Pakistan dan Sri Lanka adalah contoh beberapa negara yang terbelit utang infrastruktur dari Cina.

Akibat memiliki utang sebesar USD 40 juta, Zimbabwe per 1 Januari 2016 terpaksa mengganti mata uangnya dengan Yuan. Ngeri banget! Sementara Srilanka terpaksa melepas pelabuhan laut dalamnya di Hambantota ke BUMN Cina karena tidak bisa membayar utang.

Dampak lain yang sangat serius dari monopoli proyek infrastruktur oleh BUMN adalah bangkrutnya ribuan kontraktor swasta. Wakil Ketua Umum III Gapensi Bambang Rahmadi mengatakan, jumlah anggotanya mengalami penyusutan tajam. “Di era Pak Jokowi banyak kontraktor yang gulung tikar. Ini kan penugasan semua,” katanya.

Anggota Gapensi yang semula berjumlah 70-80 ribu, kini tinggal sekitar 35 ribu. Nestapa mereka kian bertambah karena penyaluran dana pemerintah ke desa-desa, tidak dikontrakkan.

Bisa dibayangkan berapa jumlah pengangguran baru tercipta akibat program infrastruktur Jokowi.

Cerita tentang infrastruktur Jokowi ini mengingatkan kita pada kisah legenda Bandung Bondowoso-Loro Jonggrang di Jawa Tengah, dan Sangkuriang-Dayang Sumbi di Jawa Barat.

Bandung Bondowoso diminta membangun seribu candi dalam satu malam sebagai syarat untuk meminang Loro Jonggrang. Sementara Sangkuriang diminta membuat perahu dan danau dalam satu malam, sebagai syarat untuk menikahi Dayang Sumbi yang nota bene ibunya sendiri.

Singkat cerita keduanya gagal memenuhi target, karena adanya manuver dari Loro Jonggrang dan Dayang Sumbi. Bandung Bondowoso dan Sangkuriang gagal menikahi dua wanita pujaan hatinya.

Bagaimana dengan nasib Jokowi? Dia juga punya target untuk menyelesaikan proyek infrastrukturnya sebagai salah satu jualan utamanya agar terpilih kembali menjadi presiden. Waktunya lima tahun.

Beda dengan Bandung Bondowoso dan Sangkuriang yang berusaha menaklukkan seorang wanita, Jokowi harus menaklukkan hati 192 juta pemilih.

Kritik pedas dari Bank Dunia ini jelas menjadi pukulan yang sangat keras bagi Jokowi. Jualan utamanya ditelanjangi habis oleh Bank Dunia. Dengan pilpres tinggal kurang 1.00 hari, dampak elektoralnya bisa sangat serius. Ini sudah masuk injury time. Kerusakan besar ini sulit untuk memperbaikinya. Ngeri-ngeri sedap!

Bersama Direktur IMF Christine Lagarde,Presiden Bank Dunia Jim Yong Kim belum lama ini dijamu secara mewah di Bali. Pertemuan tahunan IMF dan Bank Dunia itu menghabiskan dana pemerintah lebih dari Rp 1 triliun. Mosok balasannya kok begini? end

(Hersubenoarief.com)

 

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