oleh

Plus Minus Metode Rukyat dan Hisab

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Oleh: Sabrur R Soenardi*)

Jika kita buka halaman-halaman sejarah, sesungguhnya telah terjadi ikhtilaf (perbedaan pendapat) di kalangan ulama terkait masalah rukyat hilal. Apakah, misalnya, rukyat dari suatu negara dapat dijadikan patokan bagi negara-negara lain untuk memulai atau mengakhiri puasa? Ataukah sebaliknya, setiap negara memiliki kewenangan sendiri untuk memulai dan mengakhiri puasa karena perbedaan mathla’ (lokasi munculnya hilal)?

Jumhur ulama, misalnya Abu Hanifah, Malik, dan Ahmad, mengacu pada klausul pertama di atas. Dasar yang mereka ajukan adalah sabda Nabi SAW riwayat Ibnu Umar yang sangat masyhur itu: “Jika kalian telah melihat tanggal (hilal awal Ramadan), maka berpuasalah. Dan jika kalian telah melihat tanggal (hilal awal Syawal), maka berbukalah.” Kata ‘berbukalah’ di sini maksudnya adalah perintah untuk tidak berpuasa, yang konotasinya berarti kedatangan Idul Fitri.

Menurut Jumhur, perintah (khithab) dalam hadis tersebut bersifat umum, artinya ditujukan untuk segenap kaum Muslimin, tidak peduli apakah ada kesamaan mathla’ atau tidak.

Sementara itu, Imam Syafi’i RA dan sejumlah ulama Salaf mengacu pada klausul kedua, yakni mempertimbangkan perbedaan mathla’. Mereka (Syafi’i dan beberapa ulama Salaf) mengatakan bahwa perintah dalam hadis Ibnu Umar itu bersifat nisbi (kontekstual). Maka, kata mereka, perintah berpuasa atau berbuka ditujukan kepada orang yang melihat hilal (tanggal) di tempat mereka. Adapun bagi yang tidak memungkinkan tampak hilal di lokasinya, maka perintah ini tidak berlaku. Perintah ini hanya berlaku jika hilal berpotensi tampak di suatu lokasi. Pemahaman yang tidak mempertimbangkan perbedaan mathla’, menurut Syafi’i dan sejumlah ulama Salaf, bertentangan dengan dalil aqli maupun dalil naqli. Bertentangan dengan dalil aqli (rasio), karena mengabaikan kenyataan bahwa ada perbedaan waktu antara satu negeri dengan negeri yang lain. Sedangkan dikatakan bertentangan dengan dalil naqli (teks), karena ada hadis riwayat Muslim, dari sahabat Kuraib, yang mengatakan: “Saya datang ke Syria, dan saya coba mengamati hilal Ramadan ketika di Syria itu. Maka saya melihat hilal pada malam Jumat. Kemudian saya pulang ke Madinah di akhir bulan. Ibnu Abbad bertanya kepada saya sembari dia menyinggung hilal. Ia bertanya kepada saya: ‘Kapan kamu melihat hilal (awal Ramadan)?’ Saya menjawab: ‘Saya melihatnya malam Jumat.’ Dia bertanya: ‘Kamu melihatnya sendiri?’ Saya jawab: ‘Ya, saya melihatnya sendiri. Orang-orang juga melihatnya. Maka mereka berpuasa, dan Muawiyah (khalifah waktu itu,—pen) juga berpuasa.’ Ibnu Abbas berkata: ‘Akan tetapi kami melihatnya malam Sabtu. Kami di Madinah pun selalu berpuasa Ramadan 30 hari atau kami benar-benar melihat hilal.’ Saya berkata: ‘Tidakkah kita cukup dengan rukyat dan puasa Muawiyah?’ Ibnu Abbas menjawab: ‘Tidak. Sebab beginilah yang diperintahkan Rasulullah SAW’.” Imam Turmuzi mengatakan tentang hadis ini, bahwa yang dimaksud oleh hadis tersebut menurut ulama, setiap negeri itu memiliki rukyat sendiri-sendiri.

Rukyat dan Hisab
Tim Rukyat Kemenag

Dalam konteks Jumhur, secara umum dipahami bahwa kepastian tentang awal Ramadhan didasarkan pada dua hal. Pertama, munculnya hilal yang dilihat meskipun hanya oleh seorang saja, asalkan dia jujur. Kedua, genapnya hitungan bulan Sya’ban 30 hari, dengan syarat bahwa hitungan hari ketigapuluh itu memang tervalidasi (oleh para pakar). Jika pada akhir bulan itu ada mendung atau hal lain yang menghalangi pandangan, maka para ulama dalam hal ini berbeda pandangan. Titik perbedaannya adalah pada sabda Nabi SAW: “Jika penglihatan kalian —atas hilal Ramadan— tertutup mendung, maka tentukanlah tanggalnya.” [Fa in ghumma ‘alaikum faqdiru lah]. (HR Muslim, dari Ibnu Umar). Imam Ahmad, Thawus, dan sejumlah kecil ulama lain memaknai frasa “faqdiru lah” sebagai, “dlayyiqu lahu al-‘adad” (sempitkanlah hitungannya). Ini sejalan dengan makna dari QS al-Thalaq: 7, “… maka siapa yang dibatasi atasnya rezekinya” [waman qudira ‘alaihi rizquh], yang artinya sempit rezeki. Terkait ini juga adalah QS al-Syura: 12: “Allah meluaskan rezeki bagi siapa saja yang dikehendaki-Nya dan membatasinya” [yabsuth al-rizqa liman yasya’ wa yaqdir]. Yang dimaksud dengan penyempitan (tadlyiq) di sini adalah menentukan Sya’ban sebanyak 29 hari saja. Apabila di malam 30 Sya’ban di langit ada mendung atau awan, yang menghalangi pengluhatan atas hilal, maka besok harinya tetap melaksanakan puasa 1 Ramadan, dengan asumsi bahwa sang hilal tertutup awan.

Tentang hadis tersebut, Ibnu Umar memiliki tafsirnya sendiri secara praksis. Ketika Sya’ban sudah sampai hari ke 29, Ibnu Umar menyuruh seseorang untuk melihat hilal. Jika di langit ada mendung atau benda lain yang menghalangi penglihatan atas hilal, maka esoknya dia berbuka. Sebaliknya, jika tidak ada mendung atau lainnya dan hilal tampak, maka besoknya dia berpuasa.

Berbeda dengan Imam Ahmad, Thawus, dan lainnya, Abu Hanifah, Malik, dan Syafi’i, dan juga kalangan Jumhur pada umumnya, berpendapat bahwa awal bulan ditentukan dengan rukyatul hilal (melihat tanggal) atau dengan menyempurnakan hitungan bulan sebelumnya menjadi 30 hari. Puasa pada hari di mana malamnya mendung (yang menjadikan hilal 1 Ramadhan-nya tidak tampak), dengan demikian, menurut mereka, tidak bisa dianggap sebagai puasa Ramadhan. Mereka (Abu Hanifah, Malik, Syafii, dan Jumhur), memaknai frasa “faqdiru lah” sebagai, “tentukan hitungan Sya’ban genap 30 hari”.

Di kalangan para ulama Salaf, hanya sedikit dari yang menganut pandangan yang berbeda dengan pendapat-pendapat ulama Jumhur di atas. Di antara mereka, misalnya, ada Muthrif Ibn ‘Abdillah, Abu al-‘Abbas Ibn Suraij, Ibnu Quthaibah, dan beberapa lainnya, berpendapat bahwa menetukan awal bulan sebaiknya dengan menggunakan perhitungan falak (ilmu tentang peredaran benda-benda langit). Di zaman itu, ilmu hisab memang belum berkembang semaju dan sepesat sekarang. Sehingga pendapat-pendapat yang coba mengunggulkan hisab atas rukyat mendapat pertentangan yang hebat. Imam Nawawi berkata: “Yang betul adalah pendapat Jumhur (baca: yang menekankan rukyat dan penggenapan 30 hari), sedangkan pendapat lainnya itu merusak dan tertolak, karena hadis-hadisnya sudah jelas.” [Fa al-shawabu ma qalahu al-jumhur wama siwahu fasid wa mardud bi sharih al-ahadits al-sabiqah]. Ibnu Taimiyyah mengatakan: “Tidak diragukan lagi, acuan yang benar adalah Sunnah yang sahih dan kesepakatan para sahabat Nabi, bahwa tidak boleh mendasarkan penentuan awal bulan pada hitungan bintang.” [Wala raiba annahu tsabata bi al-sunnah al-shahihah wa ittifaq al-shahabah annahu la yajuzu al-i’timad ‘ala hisab al-nujum].

Jika dipikirkan dan dianalisis secara lebih dalam, harus diakui bahwa sesungguhnya metode rukyat adalah sesuatu yang problematis. Sebab, dengan adanya perbedaan mathla’ (lokasi munculnya hilal) antara satu daerah dengan daerah lain, maka ada perbedaan pula penampakan yang didapatkan oleh masing-masing daerah itu. Butuh kecermatan yang ekstra untuk mengamati tinggi hilal di suatu mathla’, di sisi lain waktu yang dibutuhkan juga sangat sedikit. Jika di suatu mathla’ penampakannya sulit dideteksi oleh mata telanjang —atau bahkan dengan bantuan alat observasi modern, maka otomatis akan mudah disimpulkan bahwa hilal belum tampak. Sementara di mathla’ yang lain, bisa saja yang terjadi justru sebaliknya. Ini yang kemudian memunculkan perbedaan tentang awal ataupun akhir puasa Ramadhan antara satu negeri dengan negeri yang lain, jika yang digunakan adalah semata-mata metode rukyat.

Tampak dalam pemaparan di awal, bahwa dalam sejarah umat Islam dari dulu hingga hari ini, metode hisab dipandang sebelah mata oleh sebagian besar kalangan (utamanya kalangan Salaf dan yang sejalan dengannya), karena dianggap tidak memiliki dasar normatif. Apakah memang seperti itu? Jawabnya, tentu saja tidak.

Hisab adalah metode memperhitungkan pergerakan atau peredaran benda langit (bumi, bulan, dan matahari) dalam suatu data yang tersaji dari pengamatan yang dilakukan beberapa dekade, yang biasanya diproyeksikan untuk mengetahui posisi hilal yang menentukan awal/akhir bulan hijriah. Dibandingkan dengan rukyat, metode hisab mungkin lebih unggul dari segi kepraktisannya. Dengan metode hisab, kita tidak perlu repot-repot melakukan pengamatan apalagi dengan angkat jinjing alat-alat yang berat, sehingga waktunya lebih efektif. Selain tingkat ketelitian yang tinggi, metode hisab juga unggul dari segi ketepatan hasilnya karena didukung dengan data-data astronomis dan kaidah-kaidah ilmiah. Lalu, keunggulan lain adalah dari aspek keberlakuan tempat dari hasil perhitungannya; karena hasil hisab terkadang dapat berlaku bukan saja di daerah perhitungannya, namun dapat dipakai oleh luar daerah, bahkan cakupan internasional.

Meski demikian, bukan berarti juga bahwa hisab tidak mengandung kelemahan. Metode hisab sendiri banyak macamnya, ada urfi, taqribi, haqiqi, haqiqi tahqiqi, dan hisab modern/kontemporer, yang masing-masing juga sangat bergantung pada siapa yang melakukan, seberapa banyak alat dukung hitungannya, dan seberapa piawi dia melakukan perhitungan, dan seterusnya, sehingga potensi perbedaan hasilnya tentu juga sangat besar. Misalnya saja, hisab urfi, yang hanya menggunakan kaidah-kaidah sederhana dalam menghitung umur bulan Qamariah, tentu hasilnya besar kemungkinan berbeda dengan hisab kontemporer yang menggunakan rumus-rumus logaritma yang terkomputasi di dalam software dengan tingkat akurasi dan ketelitian yang sangat tinggi.

Hanya saja, di zaman sekarang, rata-rata penganut metode hisab sudah menggunakan metode hisab kontemporer, sehingga hasilnya memang relatif lebih akurat dan universal. Di Indonesia, salah satu ormas yang selama ini ketat dalam menggunakan metode hisab adalah Muhammadiyah. Bahkan lebih dari itu, di dalam metode hisabnya, Muhammadiyah identik dengan penggunaan kriteria wujud al-hilal, sehingga jika sesudah melalui perhitungan yang detil dan cermat diasumsikan secara kuat bahwa hilal sudah eksis (wujud), tanpa mempedulikan berapa pun tingginya (bahkan meski 00), maka dinyatakan bahwa itu sudah masuk tanggal 1.

Di sisi lain, NU sendiri —ormas yang identik dengan metode rukyat, tentu juga menggunakan metode hisab. Cuma, kriteria yang digunakan adalah imkan al-ru’yah, atau “kemungkinan hilal bisa dilihat”, yakni dengan ketinggian setidak-tidaknya 20, dan untuk mengkonfirmasinya adalah dengan melakukan pengamatan langsung alias rukyat, atau dalam Bahasa ilmiahnya disebut observasi.

Jika di awal tadi banyak ditampilkan dasar tekstual, terutama dari hadis Nabi SAW, tentang rukyat sebagai metode yang absah, maka demikian juga para pembela hisab memiliki dasar dari nash untuk meneguhkan otoritasnya. Para penganut hisab mendasarkan kerja ilmiahnya, misalnya, pada QS Yunus: 5, yang artinya: Dia-lah yang menjadikan matahari bersinar dan bulan bercahaya dan ditetapkan-Nya manzilah-manzilah (tempat-tempat) bagi perjalanan bulan itu, supaya kalian mengetahui bilangan tahun dan perhitungan (waktu). Allah tidak menciptakan yang demikian itu melainkan dengan hak. Dia menjelaskan tanda-tanda (kebesaran-Nya) kepada orang-orang yang mengetahui. Ayat lain yang mendukung lagi adalah QS ar-Rahman: 1-5: Yang Maha Pengasih. Dia yang telah mengajarkan Alquran. Dia yang telah menciptakan manusia. Dia mengajarkan manusia untuk pandai bicara. Matahari dan bulan (beredar) menurut perhitungan. Dari dua ayat di surat yang berbeda di atas, pada intinya menjelaskan secara tersirat bahwa peredaran benda-benda langit, atau persisnya posisi edar matahari dan bulan terhadap bumi, sudah secara baku ditetapkan garis-garisnya oleh Allah SWT sang Pencipta. Bahkan Allah mengatur perputaran benda-benda itu dengan perhitungan yang detil dan sempurna, dengan tujuan agar, jika kita menguasai ilmunya, kita akan mengetahui bilangan tahun dan hitungan-hitungannya. Dalam surat lain, misalnya QS al-An’am: 96, disebutkan: Dia (Allah) menyingsingkan pagi dan menjadikan malam untuk beristirahat, dan (menjadikan) matahari dan bulan untuk perhitungan. Itulah ketentuan Allah yang Mahaperkasa lagi Maha Mengetahui. Jelas dinyatakan dalam ayat ini, bahwa (peredaran) matahari dan bulan memang sengaja dijadikan oleh Allah sebagai dasar atau acuan perhitungan (husbanan, hisab). Dengan mengetahui hitungan detil tentang peredaran matahari di manzil-nya, kita dapat membuat jadwal detil tentang waktu-waktu salat. Sedangkan dengan mengetahui hitungan detil tentang peredaran bulan di manzil-nya, maka kita dapat menentukan kapan terjadinya konjungsi (ijmak bulan dan matahari) sebelum masuknya tanggal 1 bulan berikutnya.

Betul bahwa rukyat adalah metode yang lebih dekat dengan Sunnah, karena jelas bahwa untuk memulai dan/atau mengakhiri puasa, kita diperintahkan untuk melihat hilal. Namun harus dilihat juga konteks munculnya perintah dalam hadis tersebut. Pada zaman Nabi SAW, abad VII Masehi kala itu, perkembangan ilmu hisab atau ilmu falak masihlah sangat terbatas. Artinya, perintah Nabi dalam hadis tersebut memiliki illat (alasan) tersendiri. Menurut Rasyid Ridha dan Mustafa al-Zarqa, illat perintah rukyat adalah karena ummat zaman Nabi saw adalah ummat yang ummi, tidak kenal baca tulis dan tidak memungkinkan melakukan hisab. Ini ditegaskan oleh Rasulullah SAW sendiri dalam hadis riwayat Bukhari dan Muslim: “Sesungguhnya kami adalah umat yang ummi; kami tidak bisa menulis dan tidak bisa melakukan hisab. Bulan itu adalah demikian-demikian. Yakni kadang-kadang dua puluh sembilan hari dan kadang-kadang tiga puluh hari”.

Dalam kaidah fiqhiah, hukum berlaku menurut ada atau tidak adanya illat. Dalam hadis di atas, illat-nya adalah kondisi ummi (umat Nabi waktu itu tidak bisa baca, tulis, dan hitung), sehingga tidak ada yang dapat melakukan hisab. Dalam kondisi seperti itu, maka berlaku perintah rukyat. Sedangkan jika illat tidak ada, yakni sudah ada ahli hisab, atau bahwa ilmu hisab (falak) sudah berkembang dengan pesat sebagaimana sekarang ini, maka perintah rukyat tidak berlaku lagi. Ini sejalan dengan kaidah yang diintrodusir oleh Ibn al-Qayyim: Taghayyur al-ahkam bitaghayyur al-amkinah wa al-azminah (hukum berubah sesuai dengan perubahan tempat dan waktu). Yusuf al-Qaradawi dalam hal ini mengatakan bahwa rukyat bukan tujuan pada dirinya, melainkan hanyalah sarana. Muhammad Syakir, ahli hadits dari Mesir yang oleh al-Qaradawi disebut seorang Salafi murni, menegaskan bahwa menggunakan hisab untuk menentukan bulan qamariah adalah wajib dalam semua keadaan, kecuali di tempat di mana tidak ada orang mengetahui hisab, tidak ada alat-alat yang dapat mendukung kerja hisab—dan itu jelas tak mungkin di zaman sekarang. Wallahu a’lam. (*)

 

*) Penulis adalah Alumnus PPWI Petanahan Kebumen & PPs UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, serta eksponen PII Wilayah Yogyakarta Besar.

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