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Perbaikan Gelora Bung Karno dari Masa ke Masa

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JAKARTAGelanggang Olahraga (Gelora) Bung Karno adalah sebuah kompleks olahraga serbaguna di Senayan, Jakarta, Indonesia. Kompleks olahraga ini dinamai untuk menghormati Soekarno, Presiden pertama Indonesia, yang juga merupakan tokoh yang mencetuskan gagasan pembangunan kompleks olahraga ini. Dalam rangka de-Soekarnoisasi, pada masa Orde Baru, nama kompleks olahraga ini diubah menjadi Gelora Senayan. Setelah bergulirnya gelombang reformasi pada 1998, nama kompleks olahraga ini dikembalikan kepada namanya semula melalui Surat Keputusan Presiden No. 7/2001[1].

Gedung olahraga ini dibangun mulai sejak pada tanggal 8 Februari 1960 sebagai kelengkapan sarana dan prasarana dalam rangka Asian Games 1962 mulai buka diresmikan sejak pada tanggal 24 Agustus 1962 yang diadakan di Jakarta.

Pembangunannya didanai dengan kredit lunak dari Uni Soviet sebesar 12,5 juta dollar AS yang kepastiannya diperoleh pada 23 Desember 1958.

Latar belakang

Selain sebagai tempat berolahraga, kawasan Gelora Bung Karno oleh berbagai kelompok masyarakat sering dimanfaatkan sebagai ajang temu. Selain itu pada awal tujuan dibangunnya stadion ini, Presiden Soekarno juga menginginkan kompleks olahraga yang dibangun untuk Asian Games IV 1962 ini juga hendaknya dijadikan sebagai paru-paru kota dan ruang terbuka tempat warga berkumpul. Sebuah konstruksi khusus yang dibangun adalah atap baja besar yang membentuk cincin raksasa dan melindungi para penonton dari hujan dan panas, yang disebut oleh Bung Karno sebagai “Temu Gelang”.

Fase pembangunan

Sebelum Asian Games 1962

Pembangunan Stadion Senayan 1961
  • 8 Februari 1960 – Presiden Soekarno menancapkan tiang pancang Stadion Utama sebagai pencanangan pembangunan kompleks Asian Games IV disaksikan wakil perdana menteri Uni Soviet, Anastas Mikoyan.
  • Juni 1961 – Stadion Renang berkapasitas 8.000 penonton selesai dibangun. Bangunan ini terdiri dari kolam tanding 50 meter, kolam loncat indah, kolam pemandian dan kolam anak. Bangunan ini direnovasi pada tahun 1988.
  • 25 Desember 1961 – Stadion Tenis berkapasitas 5.200 penonton selesai dibangun.
  • Desember 1961 – Stadion Madya (sebelumnya disebut Small Training Football Field (STTF)) berkapasitas 20.000 penonton selesai dibangun. Berdiri di areal seluas 1.75 hektar dengan sumbu panjang 176.1 meter, sumbu pendek 124.2 meter dan dilengkapi dengan 2 tribun; tribun barat dengan kapasitas 8.000 penonton dan tribun timur dengan kapasitas 12.000 penonton. Bangunan ini direnovasi pada tahun 1987.
  • 21 Mei 1962 – Istana Olahraga berkapasitas 10.000 penonton selesai dibangun dan untuk pertama kalinya digunakan untuk penyelenggaraan kejuaraan dunia bulu tangkis beregu putra memperebutkan Piala Thomas.
  • Juni 1962 – Hall Basket berkapasitas 3.500 penonton selesai dibangun.
  • 21 Juli 1962 – Stadion Utama berkapasitas 100.000 penonton selesai dibangun. Ciri khas bangunan ini adalah atap temu gelang berbentuk oval. Sumbu panjang bangunan (utara-selatan) sepanjang 354 meter; sumbu pendek (timur-barat) sepanjang 325 meter. Stadion ini dikelilingi oleh jalan lngkar luar sepanjang 920 meter. Bagian dalam terdapat lapangan sepak bola berukuran 105 x 70 meter, berikut lintasan berbentuk elips, dengan sumbu panjang 176,1 meter dan sumbu pendek 124,2 meter.
  • 24 Agustus 1962 – Gedung TVRI Pusat sebagai stasiun televisi pertama di Indonesia selesai dibangun diresmikan mulai dibuka.

    Sesudah Asian Games 1962

    Era Yayasan Gelanggang Olahraga Senayan (YGOS)

    Pada era Yayasan Gelanggang Olahraga Senayan ini, terjadi banyak penyimpangan sehingga kawasan Gelora Bung Karno yang semula luasnya 279,1 hektaree ini telah menyusut hingga tinggal 136,84 hektaree (49%) saja.

    Dari jumlah yang 51% itu, 67,52 hektaree (24,2% dari luas semula) digunakan untuk berbagai bangunan pemerintah seperti Gedung MPR/DPR, Kantor Departemen Kehutanan, Kantor Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, Gedung TVRI, Graha Pemuda, kantor Kelurahan Gelora, SMU Negeri 24, Puskesmas, gudang Depdiknas dan rumah makan.

    Sisanya yang 26,7% atau 74,74 hektaree disewakan atau dijual untuk berbagai bangunan seperti misalnya kepada Hotel Hilton, kompleks perdagangan Ratu Plaza, Hotel Mulia, Hotel Atlet Century Park (dahulu Wisma Atlet Senayan), Taman Ria Remaja Senayan, Wisma Fairbanks, Plaza Senayan dan berbagai bangunan komersial lain.

    Era Badan Pengelola Gelora Bung Karno (BPGBK)

    Pada masa BPGBK ini dua buah bangunan di kompleks Stadion Gelora Bung Karno akan dirubuhkan. Kedua bangunan tersebut adalah Wisma Fairbanks dan Gedung Serba Guna di belakang hotel Century. Semula Wisma Fairbanks diharapkan akan memberikan keuntungan kepada pihak BPGBK, setelah perjanjian pembangunan dan penguasaan wisma tersebut selama 30 tahun berakhir. Setelah dikembalikan, menurut pihak BPGBK bangunan itu tidak lagi memenuhi syarat huni. Menurut rencana, sebagai gantinya akan dibangun sebuah apartemen dan perkantoran, dengan 200 kamar yang akan disediakan untuk atlet.[2]

    Daftar Bangunan di Area Gelanggang Olahraga Bung Karno

    Revitalisasi 2016

    Pada tahun 2016, Kawasan Gelora Bung Karno direvitalisasi untuk mendukung penyelenggaraan Asian Games XVIII pada tahun 2018.[2] Proyek revitalisasi ini diparakarsai oleh Kementerian PUPR berdasarkan Inpres Nomor 2/2016, mencakup pembangunan dan rehabilitasi 14 tempat di Komplek Gelora Bung Karno melalui 16 paket pekerjaan yang dilelang. Proyek ini dimulai bulan Februari 2016 dan rencananya selesai bulan Oktober 2017. (Zul)

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