oleh

Ketika Aisyah Protes Kartini

-Opini-74 views
 Oleh: Soenano

Sejak 2017, hijab cadar menjadi trend mode pakaian perempuan di kota-kota besar. Mode ini tidak lagi hanya bisa kita temui di pesantren-pesantren salaf. Cobalah jalan-jalan ke mall besar di Jakarta, banyak perempuan bercadar juga ikut jalan-jalan. Sangat harmonis.

Sebagian kalangan mengkhawatirkan trend mode cadar ini. Impor mode dari Timur Tengah katanya. Ada bahaya radikalisme dan kelompok ekstrim Islam. Respon ini bisa dilihat ketika buru-buru Rektor UIN Sunan Kalijaga mengeluarkan Surat Edaran Rektor tentang Pembinaan Mahasiswa Bercadar di UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta, yang menyulut reaksi keras dari banyak kalangan, sampai akhirnya Rektor UIN Jogja buru-buru membatalkannya.

Sejak model hijab dikenalkan di Indonesia, dengan berbagai modifikasinya, tidak pernah lepas dari kontroversi. Kita ambil batasan sejak Orde Baru, larangan hijab banyak terjadi, khususnya pada penggunaan hijab untuk foto ijazah. Kampus-kampus selain IAIN pada medio 1980-an juga melarang mahasiswinya menggunakan hijab.

Hijab sebagai simbol pakaian wanita Islam, banyak mendapat sorotan perempuan Indonesia. Seperti contoh kritik Sukmawati Soekarnoputri. Reaksi yang sama dan bahkan jauh lebih heboh ketika Sukmawati Sukarnoputri membacakan Puisi “Ibu Indonesia” di acara peragaan busana Anne Avantie, dengan cepat menuai kontroversi. Bahkan, Sukmawati dilaporkan ke Polda Metro Jaya atas dugaan penistaan agama. Pasalnya, puisi itu menyinggung syariat Islam, cadar dan suara azan.

Seperti ini petikan puisinya:

Aku tak tahu Syariat Islam/Yang kutahu sari konde ibu Indonesia sangatlah indah/Lebih cantik dari cadar dirimu/Gerai tekukan rambutnya suci/Sesuci kain pembungkus ujudmu…

Aku tak tahu syariat Islam/Yang kutahu suara kidung Ibu Indonesia, sangatlah elok/Lebih merdu dari alunan azanmu…

Dalam diskursus semiotika, hijab adalah simbol “Aisyah” dan konde adalah simbol “Kartini”. Sebagai simbol “Aisyah” selama ini memang semakin kokoh menjadi bagian dari sejarah dan realitas bangsa Indonesia. Kelompok mereka memiliki suara yang signifikan dalam menentukan arah opini publik. Apalagi kalau cuman menggoreng isu jilbab dan cadar yang menjadi identitas mereka. “The power emak-emak Aisyah” jauh lebih dahsyat protesnya karena sudah mewakili institusi sosial. Bahkan mampu menggetarkan peta politik Indonesia ketika Neno Warisma membuat beberapa group WA dengan tagar #2019GantiPresiden. Langsung viral.

Apalagi kecenderungan masyarakat Indonesia sekarang semakin mengarah ke kebudayaan beridentitas global. Globalitas pencitraan masyarakat dari golongan Aisyah meneguhkan simbol dirinya atas nama “agama” dari nilai-nilai normatif. Keteguhan dan sikap bertahan dengan penampilan berkerudung membentuk identitas dan menjadi kekuatan magis yang menjaga dari serangan-serangan kaum lelaki yang ceroboh, yang meletup dari naluri seksual. Keteguhan tersebut yang didasari normatifitas keagamaan yang menjadi prinsip untuk tidak terbawa arus perubahan zaman yang semakin mengaburkan nilai-nilai agama, sekaligus menjelaskan bahwa agama bagian dari alat pengontrol interaksi masyarakat.

Aisyah adalah sosok wanita yang konsisten dan mempunyai pontensi taat aturan. Coba bandingkan akan lebih tertib mana antara perempuan bercadar dan berkonde jika naik motor di jalan raya? Jelas kelompok Aisyah. Soalnya sampai sekarang belum ada helm desain khusus perempaun pakai konde. Susah perempuan berkonde pakai helm.

Belajar dari sejarah
Ketika Snouck Hurgronje ditunjuk sebagai penasehat urusan pribumi, mengingatkan pemerintah kolonial untuk tidak ikut campur dalam persoalan keagamaan dan turut campur dalam bidang politik. Gagasan ini belajar dari sejarah perang dan pemberontakan di Indonesia. Perang Diponegoro ada irisan keagamaan, Perang Aceh adalah Perang Sabil melawan kapie Belanda dan juga Pemberontakan Petani Banten, salah satu penyebabnya adalah larangan adzan dan dzikir oleh Asisten Residen Belanda.

Nasehat Snouck Hurgronje itu menjadi landasan kebijakan intervensi pemerintah terhadap Islam di Indonesia. Kebijakan yang dimunculkan adalah unifikasi pada sisi hukum, asimilasi dan asosiasi yang menghendaki adanya peralihan dan kesamaan budaya Indonesia dan Belanda, sehingga tidak ada lagi budaya Indonesia. Meskipun begitu, reaksi umat Islam di Indonesia masih memiliki kecenderungan memberontak dan ingin merdeka.

Poin utama masalahnya adalah bagaimana menjinakkan dan menghadapi Islam. Untuk itu diangkatlah penghulu sebagai pegawai negeri, yang antara lain bertugas membantu bupati dalam mengawasi umat muslim. Berdasarkan analisa Snouck Hurgronje, maka dipisahkanlah masalah agama dengan politik. Pada persoalan agama pemerintah disarankan bersifat netral, sedang terhadap masalah politik diperingatkannya: harus dijaga benar datangnya pengaruh dari luar semacam Pan-Islam.

Titik berat tekanannya adalah menjaga rust en orde, ketertiban dan keamanan. Untuk menghadapi Islam di Indonesia, pemerintah Hindia Belanda bekerja sama denga para kepala adat, dan menggunakan lembaga adat untuk membendung pengaruh Islam di kepulauan Nusantara. Pola ini pulalah yang menjadi pedoman kerja bagi para Adviseur Voor Inlandsche Zakeri berikutnya, untuk melaksanakan tugasnya sebagai penasehat Gubernur Jenderal tentang segala sesuatu mengenai pribumi. Dalam perjalanan lebih lanjut kebijakan tersebut mengalami metamorfosis dengan pola-pola kebijakan dan perkembangan eksternal, apalagi setelah memasuki alam kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Kanalisasi Budaya
Spesifikasi pertentangan dan gugatan terhadap cadar dan hijab sebenarnya mengindikasikan gugatan bahwa simbol-simbol Islam tidak cocok dengan budaya Indonesia. Cadar itu identik dengan kolot, anti kemajuan dan radikal dan budaya transnasional. Cadar juga merupakan simbol pakaian yang bukan dari Indonesia.

Semua perempuan yang hadir pada acara peragaan busana Anne Avantie mencoba digiring untuk melahirkan “new-Kartini” sebagai counter dan katalisator dominasi budaya. Kelahirannya sebagai representasi sosok wanita pembebas dan modern. Dialah pejuang emansipasi wanita Indonesia, pelopor kesamaan hak, yang memandang bahwa saatnyalah kedudukan dan mampu berbuat, sejajar dengan laki-laki.

Doktrin ini akan diperingati besar-besaran pada 21 April sebagai hari Kartini Indonesia. Mereka harus bisa tampil baik di kantor sebagai manajer, gedung MPR, menggunting pita, menjadi presiden atau menentang penindasan dari kaum laki-laki, poligami, kekerasan keluarga pelacuran dan trafficking. Dan hanya kelompok Kartini lah yang masih mempertahankan budaya Indonesia dengan menggunakan “sari konde” sebagai representasi simbol budaya wanita.

Persoalannya sekarang, jilbab, cadar, adzan dan tata nilai normatif agama bisa menjelma menjadi isu budaya, politik, pendidikan dan ideologis. Bukan lagi sekedar menjadi isu keagamaan an sich. Karenanya, sering kali penyelesaiannya pun secara tegas dan sering kali tidak begitu ramah. Agaknya sudah tidak ada gunanya lagi protes-protes sosial guna menyalurkan aspirasi kaum Aisyah ini untuk memperoleh tempat bagi simbol dan tata nilai yang selama ini dibangun, dipertahankan dan diagung-agungkan.

Yang menghawatirkan Aisyah sementara ini, jilbab sebagai simbol komunitas Aisyah mulai ditafsirkan sedikit berbeda, secara kuantitas ada peningkatan penganut simbol Aisyah. Tapi pada sisi peningkatan kualitas sangat lambat prosesnya. Kita masih banyak menemukan kelompok Aisyah masih terbelakang, dan jauh dari nuansa riligius, sedang yang pintar menjadi pesakitan karena menipu dan korupsi.

Dulu, akhir dekade ’90-an ketika semakin banyak wanita menggunakan jilbab, pemerintah semakin curiga, dilarang dan dipaksa melepas. Sekarang malah menjadi keharusan di beberapa lembaga pemerintah dan swasta. Sebagian mengggunakan jilbab untuk menambah citra diri “cantik” ditengah masyarakat dan bagian dari trend mode baju abad 21. Akhirnya kaburlah spirit nilai-niai illahiah dari simbol jilbab, kemudian menjelma menjadi bagian dari budaya pakaian, hal seperti inilah yang membuata Aisyah bersedih hati. Ada kecurigaan terhadap beberapa kelompok yang mencoba mengaburkan arti simbol Islam.

Inilah, barangkali kesuksesan gagasan Snouck Hurgronje tentang asimilasi dan asosiasi pada sisi budaya. Jilbab yang menandakan kualitas perempuan dalam meyakini agamanya (Islam). Menjadi simbol kekuatan dan kebangkitan Islam abad ke-15 H dan sebagai identitas Islam. Simbol ini akhirnya direduksi nilai transendennya (nilai normatifnya) pada perkembangan budaya. Jilbab lebih ditatap pada kecenderungan meterialisme masyarakat yang semakin pragmatis. Kekuatan jilbab digunakan sebagai magis, menggoda kaum adam untuk tunduk pada kaum hawa. Jilbab akhirnya hanya menjadi simbol kecantikan, mode dan trend modernitas bukan simbol kualitas keislaman kelompok Aisyah.

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