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Ekonom Elvira Naubilina Dibalik Kemenangan Putin di Rusia

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Oleh: Defiyan Cori*

Vladimir Putin kembali terpilih untuk yang keempat kalinya sebagai Presiden Negara Federasi Rusia dengan kemenangan telak dalam Pemilu mencapai 76 persen. Mengapa Putin bisa mencapai kemenangan dan terpilih kembali sebagai Pemimpin Rusia, tentu saja tak terlepas dari dukungan pemilih atau rakyat yang mencintainya. Pertanyaannya adalah, apakah yang membuat Putin kembali sebagai Presiden Rusia selain faktor dukungan politik, bagaimana sebenarnya perkembangan ekonomi Rusia yang hanya masuk dalam rangking 6 (enam) besar dunia?

Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Rusia tidaklah begitu bagus., hanya saja pemerataan ekonomi dan hasil-hasil pembangunannya lah yang membuat Putin dicintai rakyatnya. Tingkat pengangguran di Rusia tak begitu besar, hanya 5,4 persen (data Juni, 2016) padahal secara makro ekonomi pada saat itu keadaan ekonomi Rusia tidak begitu bagus.

Pertumbuhan ekonomi Rusia sejak Tahun 2014 memburuk, rata-rata hanya mencapai antara 1,5-2 persen lebih, bahkan lembaga Dana Moneter Internasional (IMF) dan Bank Dunia (WB) memperkirakan bahwa ekonomi Rusia akan mengalami resesi. Alasannya cukup kuat, sebab tingkat inflasi Rusia mencapai 12 persen lebih dan tingkat kemiskinan mencapai 14 persen lebih. Secara teori ekonomi makro kapitalisme, perkembangan ekonomi Rusia ini adalah anomali, tak sesuai teks ekonomi arus utama (mainstream). Namun demikian, Produk Domestik Bruto (PDB/GDP) dari indikator ekonomi makro itu justru cukup tinggi, yang berarti nilai tambah industri benar-benar dinikmati industri atau rakyat Rusia sendiri.

Adalah Elvira Naubilina, seorang Ekonom yang saat ini menjadi Gubernur Bank Sentral Rusia, yang sama-sama menempuh pendidikan ekonomi di USA, perempuan juga dan tak beda dengan Menteri Keuangan Republik Indonesia saat ini yang telah memoles dan membuat perbedaan dalam kinerja ekonomi makro Rusia, yaitu perbedaan dalam cara mencapai kesejahteraan, mengatasi pengangguran serta melakukan pemerataan pembangunan. Lalu, apa yang membuat perbedaan kedua orang ini, adalah pada kepercayaan kelembagaan dalam menangani ekonomi negaranya. Elvira tak menggunakan teori yang dianjurkan oleh IMF dan WB, sebaliknya dengan Sri Mulyani.()

*Ekonom Konstitusi

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