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Mengapa Politik Inovasi Perlu Menjadi Isu di Tahun Politik 2018?

-Politik-1,433 views

Oleh Jusman Syafii Djamal

Tahun 1996 Paul Krugman pemenang hadiah Nobel Ekonomi, menulis sebuah artikel di Harvard Business Review. Judulnya “A Country is Not A Company“. Tulisan Krugman tersebut kini relevan kembali untuk dibaca ulang.

Di Amerika saat ini Donald Trump menjadi presiden dan tampil prima dengan pendekatan “hardball politics”. Keras tanpa kompromi. Ia bersuara lantang di twitter. Bahasa yang digunakan juga “straight to the point” menyerang yang dipandang mengkritik dan melemahkan posisinya.

Ia tak segan untuk menulis dalam tweet nya dengan menyebut “Rocket Man” untuk pemimpin Korea Utara dan menyebut Steve Banon Mantan Chief Strategistnya sebagai “kurang waras atau out of mind” dan penulis buku Fire and Fury, Wolf sebagai “pembohong”.

Jargon jargon tak biasa, menyengat dan kasar yang membuat jagat wacana politik di Amerika selalu hingar bingar menjadi gaduh.

Fokusnya juga jelas ingin meningkatkan daya saing dan kedigdayaan Amerika dengan segala cara yang mungkin. Mottonya “Make America Great Again”. Gaya atau Style of leadershipnya memang “out of the box” dan tanpa terikat oleh segala jenis “box” yang membatasi ruang geraknya. Baginya mengelola Negara identik dengan mengelola perusahaan atau Trump Empire Building nya sendiri. Menarik sebagai “lesson learned” untuk generasi yang lebih muda dari saya.

Pandangannya banyak yang kontroversial. Misal, rencana memasang dinding tembok Berlin pemisah batas Mexico dengan Amerika. Agar arus pekerja imigran dibendung. Trump melihat lapangan kerja blue collar Amerika dirampas oleh imigran pendatang penyeberang batas Mexico Amerika. Mengancam dan merebut lapangan kerja.

Trump juga mengancam akan stop izin perusahaan Amerika yang pindahkan pabrik ke China atau Mexico dan negara lain. Sebab tindakan off shoring terus menerus yang dilakukan industriawan untuk mencari low cost area, juga hancurkan daya saing dan industri nya.

Paul Krugman seorang ekonom pemenang hadiah Nobel punya sikap yang secara diametral berbeda dengan Trump. Baginya tata cara pengelolaan negara jauh berbeda dengan tata kelola perusahaan. Kesuksesan seseorang mengelola bisnis bukan berarti jaminan sukses menjadi presiden dan mengelola negara.

Perusahaan tidak identik dengan negara. Presiden tidak sama sebangun dengan Chairman/CEO konglomerasi perusahaan.

Kompleksitas masalah, kekuatan pengaruh dan interaksi yang terjadi diantara kepentingan ekonomi dan kekuatan sosial politik, budaya dan Hankam yang mempengaruhi tumbuh berkembangnya negara, sangatlah berbeda dengan perusahaan.

Apa yang dikatakan oleh Krugman dalam tulisannya hampir 20 tahun lalu ternyata kini relevan kembali. Debat tentang apakah mengelola negara sama sebangun dan identik dengan mengelola perusahaan kini mengemuka kembali.

Menurut Krugman perusahaan bukan Negara. A Country is not a company.

Perusahaan dapat dikelola pada level mikroskopis, yakni orientasi meraih keuntungan jangka pendek. Tiap aktivitas bisnis arahnya selalu profit making. Prinsip jika tidak untung kenapa harus investasi. Kalau tak punya prospek pada revenue yang meningkat mengapa harus dibangun, selalu jadi kredo pengelola perusahaan.

Fokus tata kelola perusahaan adalah untung rugi. Jangka Pendek.

Karenanya Obama yang telah memiliki pengalaman memerintah selama dua priode juga setuju dengan pendapat Paul Krugman.

Ia bilang kepada Trump ketika bertemu: ”memerintah itu tidak identik dengan kampanye. Begitu dilantik ada tugas besar menunggu. Anda tidak dapat menjalankan pengelolaan negara seperti memimpin bisnis keluarga”. Hal itu disampaikan Obama dalam wawancara dengan TV ABC di awal bertemu Trump.

Pandangan mikroskopis dalam mengelola Perusahaan jika diterapkan dalam proses pengambilan keputusan dan kebijakan negara dapat menimbulkan komplikasi masalah sosial besar.

Sebab fokus mengelola negara adalah menemukan solusi problem geografi kesenjangan. Mencegah pelebaran gap antara kaya dan miskin di suatu wilayah. Geography of Inequality.

Mengelola anggaran negara dengan meningkatkan revenue melalui pajak dan intnstrumen lainnya di satu sisi. Dan di sisi lain menerapkan insentif fiskal dan moneter agar tercipta growth with equity. Industri yang tumbuh berkembang dan lapangan kerja.

Sementara, perusahaan fokusnya selalu pada cost reduction dan revenue driven. Efisiensi dan produktivitas kadangkala dilaksanakan secara ekstrim dengan me”layoff atau PHK ” semua pekerja dan menggantinya dengan robot. Atau memindahkan pabrik ke negara lain yang lebih murah. Sementara negara tidak demikian. Pemahaman efisiensi dan produktivitas alokasi sumber daya memerlukan rujukan konstitusi.

Langkah ekstrim yang abaikan kesejahteraan bersama, abaikan lapangan kerja, abaikan inequality tidak boleh dilakukan jika mengelola negara. Jika negara dalam keadaan stagnasi, prinsip sesuai konstitusi tetap harus dipegang teguh. Tidak boleh “America for Sale” misalnya.

Padahal jika perusahaan dalam krisis semua hal bisa dilakukan, memotong jumlah karyawan, mengurangi jam kerja, memotong mata rantai proses produksi untuk kemudian menjualnya ke investor lain baik sebagian maupun keseluruhannya. Demikian kurang lebih kata Krugman.

Tapi tetap saja ada yang berpendapat bahwa ekonomi perusahaan itu identik dengan ekonomi negara. Rumusnya bisa disederhanakan dan dibuat sama. Meski menurut Keynes general equation to manage a country itu lebih kompleks.

Jika mengelola negara sama dengan mengelola perusahaan, pastilah krisis Yunani mudah solusinya. Cukup dirikan sejenis BPPN untuk menjual semua asset Yunani yang sedang jatuh bangkrut ke pangkuan Jerman.

Akan tetapi yang terjadi tidak demikian. Referendum di Yunani mengatakan sebaliknya “We don’t want to sell our country”. “Greek is not a company, and Greek is not for Sale”. Kata rakyat Yunani.

Karenanya debat Krugman itu seperti debat klasik. Tak berhenti di tahun 1996. Kini pun masih relevan. Apalagi Obama yang telah memiliki pengalaman panjang mengelola kompleksitas mengelola negara sependapat dan berkata mirip seperti Krugman.

Dalam hal ini upaya membangun kekuatan inovasi dan daya saing suatu negara tentulah tidak sama dengan tata cara mengembangkan ekosistem inovasi di perusahaan.

Jika kita ingin maju sebagai bangsa produsen tentulah Inovasi harus dijadikan ujung tombak dan motor penggerak pertumbuhan ekonomi.

Dan untuk itu diperlukan sebuah politik inovasi yang konsisten dan ajeg. Diperlukan suatu konsensus bersama untuk mengoptimalisasikan pengalokasian sumber daya, baik anggaran belanja negara maupun sumber daya lainnya untuk mengembangkan ekosistem dan infrastruktur inovasi bagi peningkatan pertumbuhan ekonomi dan kesejahteraan.

Politik Inovasi perlu diketengahkan agar akuisisi dan penguasaan iptek dapat diakselerasi sebagai kekuatan pembangkit kesejahteraan bersama.

*Mantan Menteri Perhubungan, Chairman at Matsushita Gobel Foundation

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